- linear perspective: a system of creating an illusion of depth on a flat surface. All parallel lines in a painting or drawing using this system converge in a single vanishing point on the composition’s horizon line.
- line weights: is the visual lightness, darkness, or heaviness of a line within a drawing. In any architectural drawing, from a sketch to a construction drawing, the interplay of different relative line weights is used to communicate depth, importance, and proximity.
- balance: a condition in which different elements are equal or in the correct proportions.
- harmony: the quality of forming a pleasing and consistent whole.
- rhythm: a strong, regular, repeated pattern of movement or sound.
- proportion: the correct, attractive, or ideal relationship in size or shape between one thing and another or between the parts of a whole.
- unity: a thing forming a complex whole.
- atmospheric perspective: also called Aerial perspective, method of creating the illusion of depth, or recession, in a painting or drawing by modulating color to simulate changes effected by the atmosphere on the colors of things seen at a distance.